The increase in the number and complexity of works in Brazil has led to greater demands on lifting and assembly operations. The current scenario, driven by industrial and offshore construction, has required an increase in the lifted load, higher assembly speed, reduced commissioning time, removal and installation of equipment in restricted areas, among other needs.
Consequently, the risks and costs involved in operations increase, requiring lifting projects that are not limited to the rigging plan. In the lifting project, many other parameters, specifications, calculations and drawings are defined that will lead to the success of the enterprise.
Some technological innovations are being applied in lifting projects. Among them, the non-linear structural analysis of cables, which allows predicting the behavior of complex systems of ties and moorings, resulting in greater security and allowing the assembly of large sets.
Stress analysis using the finite element method is also used to evaluate the structural resistance of the lifted load and accessories such as eyebolts, lifting beams and out-of-series devices. It also allows considering the effects of friction, backlash, pre-tensions, dampers and contact effects.
Simulation with 3D animation of more complex situations is also used, attesting to the feasibility of operations, identifying interferences, alternatives and facilitating understanding between design and execution.
Structural analysis of the lifted load is indispensable in cases where gripping points or even lifting are not foreseen, such as tanks assembled on site or lifting several items simultaneously in order to speed up the operation. It is also necessary to analyze intermediate situations, such as boarding, transport and temporary positioning.
When the lifting solution is contemplated in the design phase of the load itself, as is the case with pressure vessels, towers and chimneys, for example, advantages may arise such as the elimination of some lifting devices such as beams or scales and in some cases , the decrease in the number of machines.
As for the simulations with the cranes, modern software simulates the operations of the cranes that will be used, checking at all stages the workload, reactions on the outriggers, soil resistance, safety distances and interference with obstacles.
Although there are some commercial solutions for simulation, they are not complete or integrated. That’s why TechCon Engenharia has developed specific software, for internal use, which adds experience and solutions to new needs as they arise.
In this software, 3D simulations can include obstacles, surrounding buildings, terrain topography and all machines involved in all stages, constantly checking the operating radii, boom lengths and workload according to the manufacturer’s table.
From the verification of the adequacy of the choices and specifications, the technical documentation is generated for each stage, contemplating drawings, descriptive memorials and calculation memories. You can even generate a video with the entire lifting process, seen from various angles.
Also important factors are the analysis of the resistance of the terrain that will support the hoisting equipment, through soil mechanics methods, the analysis of the stability of rafts and floating boats for maritime operations and the definition of devices for releasing cargo or means of access for personnel. to hooks and tethers.
With all this, advantages are achieved that guarantee the safety and success of the work, such as the adequate choice of machines and accessories, increased safety and speed of operations, preservation of the structural integrity of the lifted load, early identification of interferences and critical stages .
Finally, operations judged by conventional methods to be unfeasible or with a high degree of uncertainty can be made feasible.
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